By Manfred Binder, Martin Jänicke, Ulrich Petschow
Structural switch in uncomplicated industries is mostly interpreted as an independent financial procedure. a few authors declare that there's a tendency to exploit the "end of the period of materials", therefore leading to a decline of the fundamental industries. this sort of strategy might evidently gain the surroundings. vintage financial theories, which take care of structural swap in a slightly holistic approach, correspond to this pattern, predicting both a shift in the direction of production and providers or a relocation of previous simple industries to constructing international locations. at the foundation of this dematerialization speculation, comparative case experiences study intimately the riding forces at the back of commercial restructuring in regards to diverse industries and nations in Europe, the place this type of decline has been saw in contemporary years.
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Additional resources for Green Industrial Restructuring: International Case Studies and Theoretical Interpretations
At present the statistical trends can be summarised as follows: 1. The hypothesis of a long-term reduction in materials use intensity by highly developed countries remains statistically plausible. A general de-coupling of GDP and the use of certain materials has been observed since 1973. Fig. 3 demonstrates that this is the case for crude steel, cement, primary aluminium and fertilisers in OECD countries, although not for paper/paperboard. Furthermore, in five countries- USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, and Austriatotal materials consumption is similarly de-coupled from GDP (Adriaanse et al.
Since materials and energy consumption contribute substantially to total costs, rising economic efficiency is usually accompanied by environmental benefits from declines in material and energy intensities. Thus integrated measures are often win-win solutions, at least if they are timed according to the investment or re-investment schedules of the affected companies. g. Dutch Esso compared to Dutch Shell in the case of petroleum refining in the Netherlands. Environmental problems have sometimes contributed to a decline in production and consumption.
Germany is still one of the largest steel producers, in absolute terms and per capita. At the start of the steel crisis, Luxembourg had a per capita steel production ten times as high as that of second-placed Belgium, and still has by far the highest rate, even after halving production. Again, differences in income hardly correlate to variance in crude steel production, and the regression line makes no sense. 7 Binder 28 Auolralio 3918 kg/cop p o. 1970fl5 9893 kgloop p o. 199l/94 ·. kg/cap 3000 • •.