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By Lee Kendrick

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These are the van der Waals forces, which are considered below. 2 Van der Waals forces There are two main types of intermolecular force that are covered by this generic title: polar and dispersion forces. Such forces result from the fact that in covalent chemical compounds or radicals the centre of gravity of the electrons, and that of the positive ions, do not necessarily coincide. If one of the ions is more electronegative than the others, then electrons will be attracted towards it. Hence there will be a gradient of space charge and an electric dipole will be set 56 Metallurgy of welding up.

Alternatively, such polymers may be bonded using a cyanoacrylate adhesive, possibly in conjunction with a primer. The strength of the polar and dispersion forces is reflected in the surface energy which, for a solid, is represented by ysv. 3 Measurement of surface energy In Chapter 1 it was suggested that because of interactions between liquid and substrate, the sessile drop technique was not suitable for quantitative measurements in the case of liquid metals. This objection does not hold for organic liquids at room temperature.

In both cases these forces act only at very short range and are inversely proportional to the distance separating the molecules. They are also reduced if the relative permittivity (the dielectric constant) of the substance is increased. This fact may be relevant to the damaging effect of water on adhesive bonds, because water has a very high dielectric constant: 80, as compared with about 5 for a typical polymer. The strength, or moment, of the dipoles present at the surface of a polymer affects its surface energy and its ability to bond with an adhesive.

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