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By Lev I. Dorman, Irina V. Dorman

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Observations were performed with the instrument at the surface, and with the instrument immersed in water, at a depth of 3 m‖. D. Pacini measured the discharge rate of the electroscope seven times over three hours. The ionization underwater was 20% lower than at the surface, consistent with absorption by water of radiation coming from outside; the significance was larger than 4σ. 034 for water, it is easy to deduce from the known equation 1/10 = exp(–d/λ), where d is the thickness of the matter crossed, that, in the conditions of my experiments, the activities of the sea-bed and of the surface were both negligible.

Gockel understood that ―recalculation of observable ionization on initial pressure can give even increase in ionization with height‖, so he does not exclude the possible presence of ―kosmische Strahlung‖ (or ―cosmic radiation‖). However, any definitive conclusions could not be made. The results received by A. Gockel did not bring any clarity to the question of sources of Early Studies of Air Ionization Sources and the Discovery of Cosmic Rays 15 ionization of air; at best, they drew the attention of researchers to the study of absorption of radiation in air (see in more details in Lacki, 2014).

Millikan was not correct. Equal weights of air and water on a unit area absorb high-altitude radiation not absolutely equally. If the experimental techniques of that time allowed to obtain more exact data, Millikan would find out a difference between corresponding instrument readings in both lakes. Moreover, it could have prevented drawing the correct conclusion! 2. sеc–1, then the data received from observations in various lakes, lays down on one curve. For interpretation of the received experimental data, of Millikan and Cameron (1926) for the first time took into consideration that the investigated radiation falls not only on the vertical, but comes also under various zenith angles θ.

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