By Tom Gray, D. Camilleri, N. McPherson
The asymmetric means of heating and cooling in the course of welding can introduce distortions into steel elements which create residual stresses. Welding distortion is a selected challenge in fabricating skinny plate constructions similar to ships. in keeping with pioneering examine by way of the authors, this ebook studies methods of modelling and checking out welding distortion and the way this figuring out can be utilized to strengthen layout and production thoughts to minimize welding distortion and its results.
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Additional resources for Control of welding distortion in thin plate fabrication: Design support exploiting computational simulation
4 Conclusion This book is concerned with quantitative methods to support engineering design and manufacturing strategies for welded, thin-plate structures, where out-of-plane distortion is a troublesome problem. The term ‘computational welding mechanics’ has been coined to describe such methods, which have many applications in welding technology, beyond providing guidance for control of distortion. The first section of this opening chapter briefly traced the development of a computational treatment of this problem over the last four decades, whereby it has become possible to improve on the former ‘trial-and-error and guess work’ approach through simulation of the application of welding processes to manufacturing.
With conventional welding wire, the central longitudinal residual stress in the fusion zone is tensile and of the order of 300 MPa. 5 Structures of weld metal from trial welding wires. (a) Weld metal from conventional welding wire showing regular grain structure with high dislocation density. (b) Weld metal from low-transformationtemperature wire showing more pronounced lath structure. . . With a low-transformation-temperature welding wire, the longitudinal tensile stress is compressive and of the order of À100 MPa.
Hence, the larger part of the heat transmission takes place transverse to the weld direction, where the temperature differential is greatest. The regions experiencing heating and cooling can be identified by drawing a curve that connects the points of maximum width for each isotherm, as shown. Thus, at any transverse cross-section, mechanical strain will be developed in the direction of welding, due to the conflict between inner regions on the weld line that are contracting and the outer regions, which are still expanding.