By Wendy Hui Kyong Chun
How has the net, a medium that flourishes on keep an eye on, been authorised as a medium of freedom? Why is freedom more and more indistinguishable from paranoid keep watch over? up to speed and Freedom, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun explores the present political and technological coupling of freedom with regulate by means of tracing the emergence of the net as a mass medium. The parallel (and paranoid) myths of the net as overall freedom/total regulate, she says, stem from our relief of political difficulties into technological ones.Drawing at the theories of Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault and reading such phenomena as Webcams and face-recognition know-how, Chun argues that the connection among regulate and freedom in networked touch is skilled and negotiated via sexuality and race. She lines the need for our on-line world to cyberpunk fiction and maps the transformation of public/private into open/closed. studying "pornocracy," she contends that it was once via cyberporn and the government's makes an attempt to manage it that the web grew to become a market of principles and commodities. Chun describes the way in which net promoters conflated technological empowerment with racial empowerment and, via shut examinations of William Gibson's Neuromancer and Mamoru Oshii's Ghost within the Shell, she analyzes the administration of interactivity in narratives of cyberspace.The Internet's power for democracy stems now not from illusory supplies of person empowerment, Chun argues, yet quite from the ways that it exposes us to others (and to different machines) in methods we won't keep watch over. utilizing fiber optic networks -- gentle coursing via glass tubes -- as metaphor and truth, keep watch over and Freedom engages the wealthy philosophical culture of sunshine as a determine for wisdom, explanation, surveillance, and self-discipline, for you to argue that fiber-optic networks bodily instantiate, and therefore shatter, enlightenment.
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Extra info for Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics
Indeed, as I discuss in detail in chapter 2, the notion that better information means better knowledge, which in turn means better action, founded and foiled the dream of the Internet as the ideal democratic public sphere. S. government’s 41. com/~women/Issue17i (accessed June 8, 1999). long-standing support of the Internet as a military and research network, and its decision in 1994 to privatize the backbone; the concurrent imagined and real expansion of technologies such as virtual reality (VR); the conﬂation of the Internet with cyberspace; a thriving personal computer and software industry, which was able to slash prices through outsourcing to Asia and Mexico; interest by various media companies and telecommunications companies in merging and expanding their markets (made possible through the Telecommunications Act of 1996); technological advances that made the Internet more image friendly (Web, imageoriented browsers); and extreme coverage in other mass media.
This unnatural situation, Schreber conjectures, is related to soul murder, which like hypnosis, imprisons someone’s will (9). After establishing such contact, Flechsig enlisted God (or at least half of him: God is split into a lower God Ariman and an upper God Orzmund) into his scheme by establishing direct contact between God and Schreber in order to destroy Schreber’s sanity, so that Flechsig could possibly violate his body. 7. Schreber, Memoirs, 56. 8. He likens this situation to the role of a parent sitting as an audience member during a public school examination, during which the parent cannot help but answer the questions posed to his child.
When the Internet went public by being privatized in 1994–1995, telecommunications and cable companies began building backbones (MCI/WorldCom was the majority owner of the Internet backbone in 2002). The Internet, then, as the Supreme Court argued, became a shopping mall—a privately owned, publicly accessible space—and the entrance of cable companies as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) profoundly altered the backbone’s status, since these ISPs closed their cables to competing trafﬁc. 4 This transformation poses the most signiﬁcant challenge to democracy today.