By Jiro J Kaneko
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Extra resources for Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals
An alternate approach toward assessment of the glucose requirements of an animal is to measure the rate at which glucose enters or leaves the circulation. This is best measured by the use of isotopically labeled glucose. In recent years, reports from Kleiber's laboratory using this technique have given estimates of the daily turnover or requirements for glucose by the lactating cow. Baxter et al. (1955), estimated a transfer out of the circulation of about 70 gm/hr or 1680 gm/day in a lactating cow, a figure which they realized may have overestimated the daily glucose turnover.
The amelioration of diabetes in an experimental animal by hypophysectomy (Houssay animal) is well established. T h e pituitary factor, which, in effect, opposes the action of insulin, is associated with G H . T h e influence of the glucocorticoids is probably exerted through their effect upon increasing gluconeogenesis and thereby the intracellular concentration of G-6-P. A n increase also results from the glyco genolytic action of epinephrine and glucagon, and the equilibrium again is shifted in favor of free glucose production.
Estimates of the incidence of diabetes range as high as 1:152 for dogs ( K r o o k et al, I960) and 1:800 for cats (Meier, I960). The literature of diabetes mellitus in animals has been extensively reviewed by Wilkinson (1957, 1958). T h e clinical aspects have been described by Schlotthauer and Millar (1951). The classic and still the most detailed study of diabetes in the dog and cat was published by Hjarre (1927). In dogs, the disease occurs most frequently at 8 years of age (Wilkinson, 1957).