By Markus Helfenstein, George S. Moschytz
This booklet comprises revised contributions by means of the audio system of the first IEEE Workshop on instant verbal exchange Circuits and platforms, held in Lucerne, Switzerland, from June 22-24, 1998. the purpose of the workshop used to be to illustrate the sizeable services of the CAS Society within the region of circuit and method layout to the quickly turning out to be box of instant communications. The workshop mixed shows by means of invited specialists from academia and with panel and casual discussions. the subsequent themes have been coated: RF approach Integration (single-chip platforms, CMOS RF circuits), RF Front-End Circuits (CMOS RF oscillators, broadband layout techniques), Wideband Conversion for software program Radio (A/D conversion concerns, wideband sub-sampling, low-spurious A/D conversion), approach applied sciences for destiny RF platforms (Si, SiGe, GaAs, CMOS, packaging technologies), DSP for instant Communications (DSP algorithms, fixed-point platforms, DSP for baseband applications), Blind Channel Equalization (adaptive interference suppression, layout thoughts, channel estimation). a delicately chosen blend of tutorial-like papers in addition to papers on really expert and complex issues is incorporated. hence, rookies to the sector of instant communications will enjoy the assessment of rising applied sciences in circuits and platforms, and experts will enjoy the thought-provoking information awarded during this e-book.
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Additional info for Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communications
Unfortunately, the amplification that can be applied to the signal before mixing is limited by the level of in-band interferers which must not overload the mixer. The DC offsets are caused by a collection of effects. Imbalance in the mixers will lead to a DC output. This is generally a constant quantity and could be cancelled with suitable circuitry. Any leakage of the local oscillator to the input of the receiver will result in a DC signal being generated. If this leakage is via radiation coupling into the antenna, then this may vary with the local environment.
For up-conversion mixers, the situation is totally different. The high-frequency local oscillator (LO) and the low-frequency baseband (BB) input signal are multiplied to form a high-frequency output signal. All further signal processing has to be performed at high frequencies, which is very difficult and power consuming when using current sub-micron CMOS technologies. g. –30dB of the signal level. Many published CMOS mixer topologies are based on the traditional variabletransconductance multiplier with cross-coupled differential modulator stages.
Sensitivity (Fig. 4) By themselves, neither the receiver blocking nor the receiver sensitivity requirements is intrinsically difficult to meet: it is achieving both requirements simultaneously within a low-power, low-cost handset that is the design challenge. 2 dB at 1800MHz for a typical GSM equaliser realisation. It is good practice to design for a nominal performance at least 4 dB better than these figures to give adequate production margin. The most challenging blocking requirement is the 3 MHz blocking figure which is almost 80 dB up on the wanted signal (74 dB for GSM 1800).