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By S. Wheatcroft

This assortment provides perspectives on key features of Russian/Soviet background resembling the non-Slavic assets of Russian statehood; tsarist penal platforms; the pre-evolutionary technological point; the famine of 1931-3; patronage practices in Stalin's Russia; and the autumn of the Soviet Union.

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Warfare with the Umayyad caliphate continued intermittently for a century. The Khazars were never permanently defeated, though in 737 Arabic armies commanded by Marwan b. Muhammad, who was to be the last Umayyad Caliph, did penetrate deep into Khazar territory. As has often been pointed out, the Khazars blocked Islamic expansion north of the Caucasus as the Franks blocked Islamic expansion north of the Pyrenees. 20 In about 670, the Khazars defeated the neighbouring Turkic state of 'Magna Bulgaria', which dominated the lucrative trade routes from the Caspian to the Sea of Azov, and on to Byzantium.

The title 'Kaghan' appears in an eleventhcentury graffito in St Sophia, as the title of prince Yaroslav. 110 Indeed, it may have been used more widely as a royal title in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, particularly in the south. 111 It also crops up in two wellknown passages in medieval Russian literature. The 'Sermon on Law and 22 The Pre-Revolutionary Period Grace' of Metropolitan Hilarion, which was composed in c. 1051, refers at one point to 'our teacher and mentor, the great Kagan of our land, Vladimir'.

385-6. 24. Dunlop, Jewish Khazars, p. 93. 25. , pp. 93, 96; A. P. , Kniga Akhmeda ibn Fadlana o ego puteshestvii na Volgu v 921-922 gg. , 1956), pp. 140-1. 26. Dunlop, Jewish Khazars, p. 96. 27. Kovalevskii, Kniga Akhmeda ibn Fadlana, p. 147. For Ibn Fadlan's sources, see Dunlop, Jewish Khazars, p. 109. In this customary way, a political relationship was represented symbolically as a relationship of kinship. 24 The Pre-Revolutionary Period 28. Franklin and Shepard, Emergence of Rus', pp. 79-83.

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