By Ian Heath, Angus McBride
Forty стр, около forty черно-белых иллюстраций, eight цветных вклеек.
Данный выпуск посвящен визиантийской армии 886-1118.
Национальный состав, структура, вооружиение, снаряжение, доспехи.
Read Online or Download Byzantine Armies 886-1118 PDF
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Extra info for Byzantine Armies 886-1118
63ff. H. , 2nd edn (Copenhagen, 1982), vol. XVI, pp. 3 2 2 - 6 ; Heckscher, Sveriges ekonomiska historia, vol. I, pp. ; N . Friberg, Stockholm i bottniska farvatten. Stockholms bottniska handelsfalt under senmedeltiden och Gustav Vasa (Stockholm, 1983), pp. 3 4 9 - 5 1 . L. Magnusson, Sveriges ekonomiska historia (Stockholm, 1996), pp. 1 3 2 - 5 . J. Myrdal and J. Soderberg, Kontinuitetens dynamik. Agrar ekonomi i 1500-talets Sverige (Stockholm, 1991), pp. 517-19. 42 Robert Sandberg cant developments occurred in metal production and cattle-breeding.
Urban manufacturers - frequently dominated by merchants rather than craft guilds, which in late medieval and early modern Castile, Switzerland, England and many parts of France were weak or nonexistent - were invariably hostile towards rural competition and did their utmost to quash it. The jurisdictional powers of towns over the countryside were thus of particular importance for rural manufacturing activities, and jurisdictional segregation from the towns was a fundamental prerequisite for proto-industrial growth.
Although the strategy's efficacy is open to question, it can be seen as an attempt to compensate for the monarchy's contemporary policy of gifting and selling land and direct tax revenues to the nobility, which weakened the crown's permanent fiscal base. To implement this plan, it was thought necessary to force the country's trade into the towns where it could be better 14 15 16 For the organisation of revenue collection, see B. Oden, Rikets uppbord och utgift. Statsfinanser och finansforvaltning under senare 1500-talet (Lund, 1955).