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Annual rainfall increases from south-east to north-west. Montevideo averages 950 mm annually. High winds are common during the winter and spring, and wind shifts are sudden and pronounced. In summer, winds off the ocean temper the warm daytime temperatures (Hudson and Meditz, 1990). Natural hazards are mainly linked to climate events. 3. Climate change projections While there is a fair amount of information on regional and national climate change projections in documents such as national communications under the UNFCCC, it is often based on point projections from a limited number of general circulation models (GCMs).

From a geographic and socio-political perspective, the six countries encompass considerable diversity in terms of location, size, population, population density and level of economic development. Fiji is the smallest with an area of about 18 000 km2; Bangladesh, Nepal and Uruguay are mid-sized countries of 140 000 to 180 000 km2; Egypt and Tanzania each cover about a million square kilometres. Fiji and Uruguay have about a million people each; the populations of Nepal, Tanzania and Egypt range from 25 million to 70 million; Bangladesh has a population of over 130 million.

Where vulnerability is significantly exacerbated by the biophysical impact of climate change, adaptation might require more explicit consideration of climate risk in development activity. For example, in the Nepal Himalayas, infrastructure and livelihoods could be catastrophically affected by glacial lake outburst floods and glacier retreat. Thus, adaptation would require more direct measures to reduce exposure to such risks, going beyond baseline poverty reduction and economic development. In seeking to establish priorities for adaptation, decision makers may also wish to consider the affected sector’s share of employment, contribution to the economy, cultural or other importance, and potential to affect other sectors.

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