Download ARC-Slag Remelting of Steel and Alloys by B I Medovar, V Ya Saenko, G M Grigorenko, Yu M Pomarin, V I PDF

By B I Medovar, V Ya Saenko, G M Grigorenko, Yu M Pomarin, V I Kumysh

The e-book describes the tactic of remelting consumable electrodes with an electrical are burning among the outside of a liquid slag bathtub and a consumable electrode in a water-cooled copper mold. the tactic combines the probabilities of remedy of liquid steel with the electrical arc within the gasoline surroundings and the liquid slag and the benefits of plasma-arc and electro slag remelting. The technological chances, layout positive aspects of melting structures and result of experimental and business melting trials of steels and alloys are defined. as well as remelting structural steels, unique realization is given to the potential of alloying the steel with nitrogen from the gasoline part, with no utilizing dear nitrogen-bearing nonmetallic compounds, e.g. silicon nitride. it's proven that arc slag remelting is additionally used successfully in generating ingots of titanium and its alloys. the consequences received during this strategy are in comparison with electro slag remelting and plasma arc remelting. info on power intake and steel caliber also are provided.

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Example text

The slag bath is a melt of an electrolyte with a large number of complicated and simple ions. Its temperature may reach 2500°C. Certain slag components can evaporate at these temperatures, whereas others dissociate into ions and, in this form, may take part in the current transfer process. However, since the temperature of arc discharge is considerably higher than that of the slag pool, the intensity of the processes of evaporation, dissociation and ionization here is considerably higher. For example, in the zone in the immediate vicinity of the arc column temperature may reach 3000-6000°C or higher; at these temperatures boiling of the slag (metal) and its intensive evaporation are unavoidable.

10) several droplets form simultaneously, whereas tens of droplets may appear at a large electrode section. One of the main technological characteristics determining the productivity of any electric remelting process is the melting rate of the billet or electrode. Figure 15 shows the statistical data obtained in processing ASR melts of steel electrodes with a diameter from 48 to 600 mm. They indicate that in ASR the relationship between the melting rate and melting current is linear. A certain scatter in the values of the melting rate can be explained by the variation of voltage and a difference in the electrode diameters.

1) electrode feed mechanism; 2) electrode; 3) water-cooled crystallizer; 4) liquid slag; 5) ingot; 6) water-cooled stool. In ESR, the refining medium is a synthetic slag, superheated to relatively high temperatures (if required, to 2500°C). The slag efficiently desulphurises the metal and adsorbs nonmetallic inclusions. In ESR, hydrogen is practically not removed from the metal. Oxygen is removed quite efficiently, as a result of dissociation of oxide nonmetallic inclusions. In ESR, carbon deoxidation of the metal of the consumable electrode may also take place.

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