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EYTEX™ has recently been expanded by new protocols designed to widen its spectrum of application. These are at present undergoing validation which sensibly 35 Irritancy Testing include industrial compounds and mixtures (60). The US Cosmetic Toiletry and Fragrance Association has an ongoing Evaluation of Alternatives Programme and has, in Phase 1 of the Programme, tested ten ethanol-based product formulations. 1 (61). 2. (62). It must be emphasised that this selection applied to a discrete series of test samples, ethanol being common to all of them.
Cell culture methods Skin is a complex structural tissue consisting of several differentiated cell types. Although the tissue response to chemical irritation in vivo is humorally mediated, in vitro approaches have almost exclusively concentrated on assessments of the primary toxic response to chemical insult. This approach has been applied to tissue-specific, differentiated cell types, such as mast cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear cells and keratinocytes, in which functional endpoints such as degranulation, phagocytosis, migration and keratinisation or stratification have been measured.
ATLA 17, 83-100. V. (1990). Remarks of the winner of the EFPIA award. In Medicines Research and Animal Experimentation: Further Steps to a Solution, pp. 17-19. Aulendorf, Germany: Editio Cantor Verlag. 2 The Current Status of Non-animal Alternative Methods in Skin and Eye Irritancy Testing DENNIS W. SWANSTON 1 , J. GORDON BLACK2 , PAUL A. DUFFY3 and MARK A. PEMBERTON4 1 CBDE, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 OJQ, UK; 2 Unilever Research and Engineering, Environmental Safety Laboratory, Co/worth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK441LQ, UK; 3 /C/ Pharmaceuticals, Mereside, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SKIO 4TR, UK; 4 0ccupational Health Dept, ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Runcorn Heath, Runcorn, Cheshire WA74QF, UK INTRODUCTION It is now eight years since the initial assessment of toxicological methods by the FRAME Toxicity Committee (1), and the present report is a consideration of the progress made since then, in the development, validation and application of non-animal alternatives.