Download Ancient Geography: The Discovery of the World in Classical by Duane W. Roller PDF

By Duane W. Roller

The final devoted publication on historical geography used to be released greater than sixty years in the past. for the reason that then new texts have seemed (such because the Artemidoros palimpsest), and new versions of latest texts (by geographical experts who contain Agatharchides, Eratosthenes, Pseudo-Skylax and Strabo) were produced. there was a lot archaeological examine, specifically on the perimeters of the Greek global, and a extra exact realizing of historical geography and geographers has emerged. the subject is as a result late a clean and sustained remedy. In supplying accurately that, Duane curler explores vital themes like wisdom of the area within the Bronze Age and Archaic classes; Greek enlargement into the Black Sea and the West; the Pythagorean thought of the earth as a globe; the discovery of geography as a self-discipline by way of Eratosthenes; Polybios the explorer; Strabo’s well-known Geographica; the travels of Alexander the nice; Roman geography; Ptolemy and overdue antiquity; and the cultural reawakening of old geographical wisdom within the Renaissance, together with Columbus’ use of historical resources.

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They too will expect to consume at the rate that post-industrial technocratic western nations consume. Currently 20% of the world’s population consumes 80% of its resources. A five-to sevenfold increase in consumption of energy and goods will be needed to raise the consumption level in the developing world to that enjoyed in the developed world (Brundtland Report, 1987). Irrespective of the extent of energy efficiency measures introduced, a population twice the size and with sophisticated expectations will exert stresses on planetary eco-systems which are unimaginable today.

E. rich in forests and oceans—to avoid putting their own lifestyles at risk. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTABILITY 3 Ultimately, the argument that the cost of prevention is too high—given the relatively uncertain scientific basis upon which preventative action would have to be taken—can and must be countered with the argument that the costs which might have to be borne as a result of inaction are likely to be unsustainable. Continuing with a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario rather than adopting a ‘noregrets’ risk management policy is to be avoided at all costs.

6 ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTABILITY 7 Over and above the issue of the energy consumed to air-condition buildings, the refrigerant devices themselves are CFC-driven, and airconditioning thus has a dual potential to exacerbate global warming. Paradoxically, in a warmer world, comfort requirements will presumably be met by increasing the use of airconditioners. Similarly, albeit indirectly, a considerable proportion of furniture, both domestic and commercial, is foam-blown, a procedure again reliant on the use of CFCs.

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