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By Geoffrey J. Martin

Up-to-date and revised to incorporate theoretical and different advancements, bibliographical additions, new images and illustrations, and increased identify and topic indexes, the fourth version of All attainable Worlds: A historical past of Geographical Ideas is the main entire and complete publication of its type. The textual content additionally contains a format and clarity that make the fabric effortless to navigate and understand.

The booklet investigates the ways that the topic of geography has been well-known, perceived, and evaluated, from its early acknowledgment in historic Greece to its disciplined shape in modern global of shared rules and mass communique. robust continuities knit the Classical interval to the Age of Exploration, then hold scholars on via Varenius to Humboldt and Ritter--revealing the emergence of "the new geography" of the trendy Period.

The heritage of yank geography--developed in seven of the twenty chapters--is strongly emphasised pursuant to the formal origins of geography in overdue nineteenth-century Germany, Darwin's idea of evolution, and the nice Surveys of the yank West. This remedy is better via chapters touching on parallel histories of geography in Germany, France, nice Britain, Russia (including the USSR and CIS), Canada, Sweden, and Japan-countries that initially contributed to and later borrowed from the physique folks geographical thought.

All attainable Worlds: A historical past of Geographical Ideas, Fourth version, is perfect for upper-level undergraduate or graduate classes within the background and philosophy of classical, medieval, and sleek geographical thought.

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Thales returned to Miletus with his head full of mathematical and geometrical regularities that went far beyond the practical utility of trigon­ ometry. Six geometric propositions are credited to him: (1) The circle is divided into two equal parts by its diameter. (2) The angles at either end of the base of an isosceles triangle are equal. (3) When two parallel lines are crossed diagonally by a straight line, the opposite angles are equal. (4) The angle in a semicircle is a right angle. (5) The sides of similar triangles are proportional.

The Discovery o f the Ancient World. reprinted 1969. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press. Biittner, Manfred, ed. 1979. Wandlungen im geographischen Denken von Aristoteles his Kant. Ferdinand Schoningh. Casson, L. 1959. The Ancient M ariners.. . New York: Macmillan. 38 / CLASSICAL Casson, Lionel. 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. : Princeton University Press. Clarke, Katherine. 1999. Between Geography and, History: Hellenistic Constructions o f the Roman World. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

One observation came from near Syene (Aswan). On an island in the Nile, just below the first cataract and opposite Syene, there was a deep well, and at the bottom of the well at the summer solstice the image of the sun was reflected in the water. The existence of this well had been known for a long time, and no doubt tourists in ancient times traveled up the Nile to witness this strange occurrence each year. This meant, of course, that on that date the sun was directly overhead. The second observation was made outside the museum in Alexandria, where there was a tall obelisk.

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