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By John D Grainger

Alexander's loss of life used to be now not unpredictable: he suffered repeated wounds in the course of his lifetime, and multiple introduced him close to loss of life; he drank an excessive amount of; he built a fever, in which he persisted to drink an excessive amount of; he believed he was once a god; he skipped over his doctor's guidance; he was once confronted with large difficulties which he deliberate to stay away from by means of occurring crusade ... As a last act of irresponsibility, whilst requested to whom Read more...

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When the square broke he sent the cavalry on a ferocious pursuit. Bardylis’ army was destroyed, losing 7,000 men killed, THE SECURITY OF MACED ON, 359–354 bc 29 and he at once made peace. 20 The battle, described fully enough by Diodoros for us to appreciate the tactics involved, demonstrated to any who cared to notice that a military commander of genius had arrived. Philip coordinated the actions of his soldiers and operated on his opponent’s weakest point. He cannot have faced an infantry square before, nor can he have expected to face one now, but he took command personally at the decisive point, and understood that the battle was only won after the pursuit was finished.

Under the leadership of Dionysios, the Syracusans had driven Carthage back to its last Sicilian foothold, and the rest of the island had been united under Dionysios as a consequence; he had then extended his control into southern Italy. The price was that Dionysios could not be removed, and he managed to so institutionalize his power that he could bequeath it to his son, Dionysios II, in 367. The only Greek political term which seemed to fit this situation was ‘tyrant’, but in effect it was a monarchy.

Having thus neutralized Macedon, Timotheos then set about his real work, which was to besiege the city of Amphipolis. This all convinced Perdikkas to bend with the political wind, and he joined in Timotheos’ siege:50 a policy shift which was soon reversed. Perdikkas was showing himself to be just as slippery and devious as any of his royal ancestors. The war in Greece came to a climax in 362, when the allies Athens and Sparta fought Thebes at the battle of Mantineia. The Thebans won but their leader Epameinondas was killed, and Thebes proved to be less than resolute afterwards.

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