Download A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the by Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour PDF

By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

A definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views

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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades

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Life was so difficult for those peoples that they could survive only by developing the great commercial networks that would become the basis of their future expansion far beyond the limits of Europe. Because of the intense competition that persisted among them, they were all forced into the political unions called the symmachiai and sympoliteiai that dominated the later world of the Greek city-states, until at the battle of Chaeronea in August 338, Philip of Macedon swept it away altogether. This combination of strength and dependency made the recognition of a shared political culture difficult to withhold.

5, 26. Quoted in Denys Hay, Europe: The Emergence of an Idea (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1968), 123. 11 The rule of law, restraint through custom rather than will, was responsible for the fashioning of societies that provided a space for individual human action, while at the same time ensuring that such action was rarely capable of reducing society to a state of simple anarchy. 13 There was from the beginning the conviction, which the modern democratic societies of the West have inherited, that this vision of the world was in the long—if not always in the short—run suitable for all peoples everywhere and that its cultural power was irresistible.

Richard Tuck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 127. Introduction 29 than the current European Parliament. Its relative powerlessness with respect to the European Commission rightly arouses concern about the degree to which it can be said to represent those who vote for it. ” Both the Commission and the European Court of Justice are essentially French creations. 45 But neither enlightened despotism nor the attractions of Alexander Pope’s “whatever’s best administered is best” can create a place of loyalty or offer a source of political identity.

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