By Daniel J. Levitin
From The New York instances bestselling writer of THE geared up brain and this can be YOUR mind ON song, a primer to the serious considering that's extra priceless now than ever.
We are bombarded with additional info every day than our brains can process—especially in election season. it is raining undesirable facts, half-truths, or even outright lies. New York Times bestselling writer Daniel J. Levitin shows tips to realize deceptive bulletins, statistics, graphs, and written experiences revealing the methods mendacity weasels can use them.
it is turning into tougher to split the wheat from the electronic chaff. How will we distinguish incorrect information, pseudo-facts, distortions, and outright lies from trustworthy details? Levitin teams his box consultant into categories—statistical infomation and defective arguments—ultimately exhibiting how technological know-how is the bedrock of severe pondering. Infoliteracy capacity knowing that there are hierarchies of resource caliber and bias that variously distort our details feeds through each media channel, together with social media. We may well count on newspapers, bloggers, the govt, and Wikipedia to be factually and logically right, yet they so usually usually are not. we have to imagine significantly in regards to the phrases and numbers we come upon if we wish to be triumphant at paintings, at play, and in benefiting from our lives. this implies checking the plausibility and reasoning—not passively accepting details, repeating it, and making judgements in accordance with it. Readers learn how to keep away from the extremes of passive gullibility and cynical rejection. Levitin's captivating, pleasing, obtainable consultant might help a person get up to an entire lot of items that are not so. And capture a few mendacity weasels of their tracks!
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Additional resources for A Field Guide to Lies: Critical Thinking in the Information Age
This is especially important if you’re documenting some actual or projected change in a quantity, and you want your readers to draw the right conclusions. If you’re representing crime rate, deaths, births, income, or any quantity that could take on a value of zero, then zero should be the minimum point on your graph. But if your aim is to create panic or outrage, start your y-axis somewhere near the lowest value you’re plotting—this will emphasize the difference you’re trying to highlight, because the eye is drawn to the size of the difference as shown on the graph, and the actual size of the difference is obscured.
So you dig deep into your bag of tricks and use the double y-axis, adding a y-axis to the right-hand side of the graph frame, with a different scaling factor that applies only to the nonsmokers. Once you do that, your graph looks like this: From this, it looks like you’re just as likely to die from smoking as from not smoking. Smoking won’t harm you—old age will! The trouble with double y-axis graphs is that you can always scale the second axis any way that you choose. Forbes magazine, a venerable and typically reliable news source, ran a graph very much like this one to show the relation between expenditures per public school student and those students’ scores on the SAT, a widely used standardized test for college admission in the United States.
Fallacies (Logic) | Reasoning. gov/2016007356 While the author has made every effort to provide accurate telephone numbers, Internet addresses, and other contact information at the time of publication, neither the publisher nor the author assumes any responsibility for errors or for changes that occur after publication. Further, the publisher does not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-party websites or their content. Version_1 To Shari, whose inquisitive mind made me a better thinker CONTENTS Also By Daniel J.